*Food additive.




*Ammonium compounds.



*Photography (imaging development).

*Wood sealing waterproof.


*Tape Manufacturing to write or print.

*Polymerization and condensation.

*Ammonia soap.

*Saponification of fats and oils.


Ammonia is a product with widespread use.

In 1716, J. Kunckel mentioned formation of ammonia during fermentation. S. Hales, in 1727, noted that if he warms calcium oxide (CaO) with ammonia salt in a retort to allow collecting the gaseous release of water, this does not seemed to give off any gas; by contrast, all the water was drawn into the retort. But it was Joseph Priestley, in 1774, that “discovered” Ammonia. He repeated the same experiment of Hales, only in a pneumatic mercury camera, and got what he called “alkaline air”; which is nothing more than the gaseous ammonia, whose formula is NH3.

Claude Louis Berthollet, in 1784, decomposed the gas by means of an electric spark setting composition as three (3) volumes of hydrogen and one (1) volume of nitrogen. It was the first elemental analysis of ammonia that provided knowledge of the formula.

The first industrial-scale production occurred in 1913 in Germany, using the Haber-Bosch process. The ammonia production process essentially consists in the reaction between nitrogen and hydrogen, under elevated pressure and temperature in the presence of a catalyst, as shown in the following equation:

N2 + 3H2 = 2NH3


Before the advent of synthetic ammonia industry, the main source of the nitrogen consisted of the gases from coal coking operations.

The nitrogen used in the synthesis of ammonia is derived from the air. A wide variety of sources, however, is used to obtain nitrogen required in the process.

The Haber-Bosch process is the main method for obtaining ammonia, but there are many other processes. In laboratories, e.g., ammonia is obtained by heating ammonium chloride with calcium hydroxide, according to the following reaction:

NH4Cl + 2 Ca (OH) 2 = 2NH3 + H2O + CaCl2

2.1 General Information

Ammonia (NH3).

Name of a chemical substance consisting of a nitrogen and three hydrogen (NH3) atoms. Obtained from the process of atmospheric nitrogen and hydrogen at high temperature and pressure in the presence of a catalyst. Toxic and corrosive gas.

Used as the cooling gas, as the basic component for the manufacture of fertilizers, nitric acid and ammonium nitrate.

Remains in the liquid state at low temperatures and relatively high pressures. It is a colorless gas, but at high concentrations produces visible vapor cloud, presenting strong alkaline reaction. It has characteristic, pungent and penetrating odor.

Corrosive to copper and galvanized surfaces.

It is very soluble in water; at 0 ° C and 760 mm / Hg, a volume of water dissolves approximately 1,300 volumes of gas, and 20 ° C, the same volume of water dissolves 710 volumes of gas. When dissolved in water, heating and is formed ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH).

Anhydrous Ammonia expansion in the air at 0 ° C is approximately 900 times, or 1 liter of ammonia poured equivalent to 900 liters of ammonia gas.


2.2 Synonyms:


Ammonia gas

Nitrogen hydride

Anhydrous Ammonia


2.3 Technical Data Sheet

Risk number = 268

Class 2 – Compressed gas, liquefied, liquid under pressure or highly cooled

Class 6 – Toxic Substance

Class 8 – Corrosive

UN = 1005 code number

Class or subclass of risk = 2

Description of the class or subclass of risk = Toxic Gas

CAS = 7664-41-7

Stability and Reactivity

3.1 Specific conditions

  1. a) Stability: Anhydrous Ammonia is stable when stored and used under normal conditions of storage and handling. Above 450 C can decompose releasing nitrogen and hydrogen. Polymerisation does not occur.
  2. b) dangerous reactions: This product is an alkaline gas and emits heat when reacted with acids. In contact with halogens, boron, 1.2. dichloroethane, ethylene oxide, platinum, nitrogen triclorato can cause strong oxidizers and can cause potentially violent or explosive reactions. In contact with heavy metals such as mercury, results in highly explosive reactions. In contact with chlorine and its compounds may result in the release of cloramida gas. The Anhydrous Ammonia produces significant explosive mixture when in contact with hydrocarbons. The product is also incompatible with acetaldehyde, acrolein, hydrazine, potassium ferrocyanide.

Conditions to avoid: Avoid contact to high temperatures and fire, do not induce reactions with incompatible substances.


3.2 Hazardous decomposition products

NH3 thermal decomposition may produce toxic nitrous gases.

Molecular Weight: 17.03 g / mol

Specific gravity: 0.682 g / cm3

Vapor density: 0.597 g / cm3

Color: Colorless gas

Boiling point: 33,35 ° C

Melting point: -77.7 ° C

Critical temperature: 132.4 ° C

Critical pressure: 111.5 atm.

Vapour pressure: 10 atm. 25.7 ° C

Heat of combustion: – 4440 cal / g

Viscosity: 0,255 cps at -33.5 ° C

Solubility: Miscible

Odor: Ammonia, quite pungently

Explosive Limits in Air % by volume: 15-28%

Autoignition Temperature: 850 ° C or 651 ° C (in the presence of iron as a catalyst)

Dissociation temperature: above 400 ° C

Burn rate: 1 mm / min

The information mentioned above refer to the synthesis of our knowledge and our experience with the ammonia product. Such information shall apply to the pure form of the product, according to specifications. The handler, in the case of combinations or mixtures, should make sure that they will not generate any new risk. The handler must respect – regardless of the information provided – the number of legislative, regulatory and administrative texts related to the product, hygiene and labor protection.


Total Química Indústria e Comércio Ltda has extensive experience in flow management and organization of their marketed products.

Acting in accordance with applicable law and the rules of safety and environmental protection, the Company has a large and modern fleet with the latest equipment for transportation and loading / unloading of our products. Moreover, our drivers and employees are trained and regularly assessed for safety and handling of our products.


We lent free of charge to our customers cylinders with a capacity of 80 kg of Anhydrous Ammonia load. All our cylinders are hydrostatically tested and qualified, ensuring quality and safety in product handling.

The cargo / transport / loading / unloading of the cylinders is performed by specially equipped trucks of our fleet or through authorized third-party carriers.


To supply in bulk, we own trucks with 10 tonne capacity equipped especially for the transport / loading / unloading according to the regulations.


Total Química Indústria e Comércio Ltda is committed to market Anhydrous Ammonia in the standard specification below.

Chemical characteristics |   Unit   |   Guarantee

Ammonia (NH 3) – purity          %25 weight         99.5 min

Oil + solid waste        ppm                10 max

H2O                                        %25 weight            0.5 max

Density                                 g/cm3               0.682