Ammonia Solution is a product of the dissolution of Anhydrous Ammonia (NH3 – liquefied gas) in water at varying concentrations depending on usage.
* Other names
Ammonium hydroxide (NH 4)
NH4OH = NH3 + H20
This reaction is extremely exothermic and reversible. The product has the characteristic strong odor of Anhydrous Ammonia and should therefore be treated in a similar manner in the matters of Occupational Toxicology.
OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMITS
* OSHA: 15 I STEL: 35 ppm 24 mg / m3
* ACGIH: TWA: 25 ppm, 17 mg / m3
* NIOSHI: 50 ppm, 35 mg / m3
* ANSI LT: 20 ppm, 14 mg / m3
* Boiling point: 33.35 ° C (*)
* Molecular Weight: 35.05 g / mol
* Melting Point: -58 ° C (*)
* Density: 0.9101 g / cm3 (24% NH3 at 20 ° C)
* Solubility: soluble (heat release)
* Appearance and Odor: slightly turbid colorless liquid. Pungent and penetrating.
(*) Literature Data
Such as ammonia hydroxide reaction is highly reversible, reactivity data is the same as Anhydrous Ammonia (NH3).
* Stability / Polymerization: Anhydrous Ammonia is stable when stored and used under normal conditions of storage and handling. Above 450 ° C can decompose releasing nitrogen and hydrogen, the polymerization not taking place.
* Chemical Incompatibility: It is an alkaline gas that emits heat when it reacts with acid. In contact with halogens, boron, 1,2-dichloroethane, ethylene oxide, platinum, nitrogen triclorato strong oxidizers and can cause potentially violent, or explosive reactions. In contact with heavy metals and their compounds may form explosive products, contact with chlorine and its compounds may result in the release of chloramine gas. Ammonia produces significant explosive mixture when in contact with hydrocarbons. The product is also incompatible with acetic aldehyde, acrolein, hydrazine, potassium ferrocyanide.
* Breakdown of Dangerous Goods: NH3 thermal decomposition can produce toxic nitrous gases.
PREVENTION AND FIRE FIGHTING
It is not inflammable, fire occurring in the vehicle but may be used to cool the water container, since the heat may have the same internal pressure increased considerably.
* Emergency procedures: In case of fire exists the possibility of breakdown to release toxic gases. Use SCBA or mask with airfed and PVC clothing. Cool containers exposed to fire.
PROCEDURES IN CASE OF LEAK AND SPILL
Establish a written emergency plan for action in case of leakage of NH3. Perform hands-on training. Immediately notify the security personnel, evacuate all people if necessary, remove all ignition sources and provide adequate ventilation to disperse the gas. Do not touch spilled material. Keep it with the wind in the back and keep away the curious, isolating the area within a radius of 90 meters. Before you stop the spill, use water in spray form to reduce the concentration of gases Anhydrous Ammonia (NH3) around the spill site. Neutralization in large amounts of ammonia, it is often not recommended because of heat release and exposure of people to risks. Soon after due to stanch the leak bung if this can be done without risk. Remove the packaging intact to safety. We must use plenty of water for dilution and or fog to absorb the gases evolved.
The ammonia hydroxide is not considered carcinogenic by OSHA.
* Summary of risks: The gas emanated by ammonia hydroxide can be stifling and extreme irritation to the eyes, throat and respiratory tract.
Depending on the time and level of exposure, may experience effects ranging from mild irritation to severe lesions in the body, because the alkalinity of ammonia. Exposures to high concentrations can be dangerous for less susceptible individuals, with consequent adverse health effects. Exposure concentration from 2.500 ppm, for about 30 minutes can be fatal. Contact with liquid Ammonia can cause severe eye burns and skin. Extensive burns can lead to death.
* Main areas affected: Eyes, skin and respiratory system.
* Acute Effects: Inhalation can cause respiratory problems, bronchospasm, burning in the nasal mucosa, pharynx and larynx, chest pain, pulmonary edema, salivation and retention of urine. Ingestion causes nausea, vomiting and swelling of the lips, mouth and larynx. The concentrated NH3 produces contact with skin tissue necrosis and deep burns. Eye contact results in tearing, conjunctivitis, corneal irritation and temporary or permanent blindness.
* Chronic Effects: There may be chronic bronchitis with respiratory reduction.
* Eyes: The immediate care is crucial. The first 10 seconds are critical to prevent blindness. Do not allow the victim to close or keep your eyes closed. Gently lift eyelids and rinse immediately with water and continue to rinse with plenty of water to referral to the doctor. Consult an ophthalmologist immediately.
* Skin: Quickly remove contaminated clothing, avoiding removal of skin parts. Wash the affected area thoroughly with water, then wash with soap and water.
* Inhalation: Remove to area not contaminadada and airy. Give oxygen if necessary. Refer to the doctor.
* Ingestion: Never give anything by mouth to unconscious or convulsing person. Being conscious person can give water and milk. Do not induce vomiting. Forward immediately to the doctor stating the product’s features.
* Note to Physician: The level of NH3 in the blood is not a useful indication on the control of exposed persons. Clinical evaluation of a pulmonary edema and respiratory failure, with its medical conduct, is more appropriate. Esophagoscopy consider whether the patient had oral and pharyngeal burns. Do not induce gastric lavage. If the amount ingested is significant, observe development of lesions in the esophagus. In the case of eye contamination, the solution used for washing should have a pH less than 8.5.
* Sunglasses: Wear safety chemical goggles or face shield.
* Masks: Use respiratory protection if necessary. In high concentrations, use SCBA.
* Please note: masks with mechanical filters do not protect workers exposed to oxygen-deficient atmosphere.
* Gloves: Use PVC gloves.
* Clothing: Use PVC clothes.
* Comments: Endowment area showers / eyewash. Never eat, drink or smoke in work area. Practice good personal hygiene especially before eating, drinking and smoking.
SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS AND COMMENTS
Prevent physical damage to the tank, container, drums etc .. Store preferably in a covered, dry, ventilated, waterproof floor and away from incompatible materials. It is recommended that there embankments in the storage area. Control Engineering (Collective Protection): To reduce the possibility of potential health risk, ensure sufficient ventilation dilutive or existence of exhaustion in place to control the environment at low concentration levels. Administrative controls: keep the workplace within the occupational hygiene standards and ensures that employees exposed to the product to periodic medical examinations, emphasizing eye tests, skin and respiratory tract. Periodically aware employees on safe handling and risks that the Anhydrous Ammonia offers.